Indian democracy election process

Indian democracy election process

Indian democracy election process

Election or election is an important process of democracy by which the people (people) choose their representatives. It is through elections that the people of modern democracies choose individuals to hold various positions in the legislature (and sometimes the judiciary and the executive). People are also elected for regional and local bodies through elections. In fact, the use of election is becoming widespread and it is also used in private institutions, clubs, universities, religious institutions etc.

Indian democracy election process
There are different levels of election process in Indian democracy, but mainly in the constitution there is a provision of a Lok Sabha for the whole country and a separate assembly for different states.

Article 324 to Article 329 of the Constitution of India explains the election. Article 324 lays down the superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in the Election Commission. The Constitution has given the responsibility of conducting elections to the Election Commission in Article 324 itself. Till 1989, the Election Commission was only a one-member organization but on 16 October 1989, two more Election Commissioners were appointed by a Presidential Notification.

Different number of representatives are elected from different states out of the total 543 seats in the Lok Sabha. Similarly, different number of MLAs are elected to the Legislative Assemblies of different states. Urban body elections are administered by the State Election Commission, while Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha elections are under the control of the Election Commission of India, in which the electors with adult franchise elect MPs and MLAs through direct voting. The term of both the Lok Sabha and the Vidhan Sabha is five years. For their election, the Election Commission first issues the notification. After the notification is issued, the entire election process consists of three parts - nomination, election and counting of votes.

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After the notification of election is issued, seven days are given for filing of nomination papers. After that a day is kept for their investigation. In this, nomination papers can also get canceled due to other reasons. Thereafter, two days are given for withdrawal of nominations so that those who do not want to contest elections can withdraw their nomination papers after necessary exchange of views. For the 1993 assembly elections and the 1996 Lok Sabha elections, four days' time was given for specific reasons. But generally, efforts are made to complete this work in two days. Sometimes, in case of re-polling situation in any area, a separate day is fixed for it. Polling hours are generally kept from 7 am to 5 pm in the polling stations fixed for voting.

After the introduction of electronic voting machines, a day is usually kept for counting of votes. Counting of votes goes on continuously and for this specific counting centers are fixed in which entry of unauthorized persons is prohibited like polling stations. Admit cards are issued by the election officials to all the candidates, their representatives and journalists etc. At present, the counting of votes is done according to the constituency and for that the result is declared after counting the votes of all its polling stations. According to the result, the party which gets the majority, forms its government at the center or in the state. There is no legal obligation to vote in India and it is a right and not a duty of the citizens.

The elections of the President, Vice-President and Rajya Sabha members are not done directly but indirectly. They are elected by the elected representatives of the people. At the time of elections, the entire administrative machinery works under the control of the Election Commission. The model code of conduct comes into force after the election is announced and every political party, its worker and candidate has to abide by it.

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